Xultophy® 100/3.6 glossary

A

A1C: A blood test that measures a person’s average blood sugar over the previous 3 months.    

C

Carbohydrate: One of the 3 main nutrients in food. Foods that provide carbohydrates are starches, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and sugars.

Cholesterol: A fat-like substance that is found in the bloodstream. Cholesterol is used by the body to make hormones and build cell walls. However, too much cholesterol can cause a disease that harms blood circulation.

Clinical studies: During the development of a drug, clinical studies are carried out to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug. Sometimes, a drug may be the subject of more clinical studies after it is released.

E

Endocrinologist: A health care provider who treats people who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes.

F

Fasting plasma blood glucose (FPG): The measurement of a person’s blood sugar when the person has not consumed carbohydrates in at least 8 hours.

G

Glucose: Also known as blood sugar, glucose is used by the body for fuel. Glucose is produced when the digestive system breaks down food.

Glucose tablets: Tablets made of pure sugar, used for treating low blood sugar.

GLP-1 receptor agonist: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone produced in the gut that helps the pancreas release the right amount of insulin to move sugar from the blood into the cells. It stimulates the beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin when blood sugar is high after you eat. It also helps to lower the amount of sugar produced by the liver.

Glycemic control: Effectively managing blood sugar levels is considered glycemic control. This is a common goal for many people with diabetes.

H

Hormone: A chemical made by the body to help it work in different ways. For example, insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas to help the body use glucose as energy.

Hyperglycemia: A condition that occurs when a person’s blood sugar levels are too high. Symptoms of hyperglycemia may include having to urinate often and being very thirsty.

Hypoglycemia: A condition that occurs when a person’s blood sugar levels are too low, usually less than 70 mg/dL. Symptoms include hunger, nervousness, shakiness, sweating, light-headedness, and confusion. If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness. Hypoglycemia can be treated by consuming a carbohydrate-rich food such as juice or glucose tablets. If the person is unconscious or unable to swallow, it may also be treated with an injection of glucagon.

I

Indication: This is the intended purpose of the drug. For example, Xultophy® 100/3.6 is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on basal insulin (less than 50 units daily) or liraglutide (less than or equal to 1.8 mg daily).

Insulin degludec: This is the generic name for Tresiba® (insulin degludec injection 100 U/mL, 200 U/mL). Tresiba® is a long-acting insulin that helps improve glycemic control in people 1 year of age or older with diabetes mellitus.

L

Liraglutide: The generic name for Victoza® (liraglutide) injection 1.2 mg or 1.8 mg. Victoza® is a GLP-1 receptor agonist for use in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve blood sugar along with diet and exercise. 

Long-acting insulin: Also known as basal insulin, long-acting insulin helps lower blood sugar throughout the day. Long-acting insulin covers blood sugar between meals and at nighttime. It can last up to 24 hours or more.

P

Pancreas: An organ in the body that produces insulin, a hormone that allows glucose to be used for energy.

Postprandial blood glucose (PPG): The measurement of a person’s blood sugar level 1 to 2 hours after the person has eaten.

S

Sharps container: A container to store used needles. In the United States, standard sharps containers are red and made of hard plastic.

T

Titration: The act of changing a dose based on patient response. In other words, titration is adjusting a dose.

Type 1 diabetes: A disease characterized by high blood sugar levels caused by a lack of insulin. Occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin, and therefore sugar cannot enter the cells to be used for energy. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults, but can appear in adolescents.

Type 2 diabetes: A disease characterized by high blood sugar levels that occur when the body does not make enough insulin, and cells may not use naturally available insulin correctly. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults, but can appear in adolescents.