Xultophy® 100/3.6 glossary

A

A1C: A blood test that measures a person’s average blood sugar over the previous 3 months.    

C

Carbohydrate: One of the 3 main nutrients in food. Foods that provide carbohydrates are starches, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and sugars.

Cholesterol: A fat-like substance that is found in the bloodstream. Cholesterol is used by the body to make hormones and build cell walls. However, too much cholesterol can cause a disease that harms blood circulation.

Clinical studies: During the development of a drug, clinical studies are carried out to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug. Sometimes, a drug may be the subject of more clinical studies after it is released.

E

Endocrinologist: A health care provider who treats people who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes.

F

Fasting plasma blood glucose (FPG): The measurement of a person’s blood sugar when the person has not consumed carbohydrates in at least 8 hours.

G

Glucose: Also known as blood sugar, glucose is used by the body for fuel. Glucose is produced when the digestive system breaks down food.

Glucose tablets: Tablets made of pure sugar, used for treating low blood sugar.

GLP-1 receptor agonist: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist is a medicine for type 2 diabetes that helps increase insulin secretion from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are elevated.

Glycemic control: Effectively managing blood sugar levels is considered glycemic control. This is a common goal for many people with diabetes.

H

Hormone: A chemical made by the body to help it work in different ways. For example, insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas to help the body use glucose as energy.

Hyperglycemia: A condition that occurs when a person’s blood sugar levels are too high. Symptoms of hyperglycemia may include having to urinate often and being very thirsty.

Hypoglycemia: A condition that occurs when a person’s blood sugar levels are too low, usually less than 70 mg/dL. Symptoms include hunger, nervousness, shakiness, sweating, light-headedness, and confusion. If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness. Hypoglycemia can be simply treated by consuming a carbohydrate-rich food such as a juice. If the person is unconscious or unable to swallow, it may also be treated with an injection of glucagon.

I

Indication: This is the intended purpose of the drug. For example, Xultophy® 100/3.6 is indicated to lower blood sugar along with diet and exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on less than 50 units of long-acting insulin daily.

Insulin degludec: This is the generic name for Tresiba® (insulin degludec injection 100 U/mL, 200 U/mL). Tresiba® is a long-acting insulin that helps improve glycemic control in people 1 year of age or older with diabetes mellitus.

L

Liraglutide: The generic name for Victoza® (liraglutide) injection 1.2 mg or 1.8 mg. Victoza® is a GLP-1 receptor agonist for use in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve blood sugar along with diet and exercise. 

Long-acting insulin: A type of insulin that lowers blood sugar throughout the day. Long-acting insulin covers blood sugar between meals and at nighttime. It can last up to 24 hours or more.

P

Pancreas: An organ in the body that produces insulin, a hormone that allows glucose to be used for energy.

Postprandial blood glucose (PPG): The measurement of a person’s blood sugar level 1 to 2 hours after the person has eaten.

S

Sharps container: A container to store used needles. In the United States, standard sharps containers are red and made of hard plastic.

T

Titration: The act of changing a dose based on patient response. In other words, titration is adjusting a dose.

Type 1 diabetes: A disease characterized by high blood sugar levels caused by a lack of insulin. Occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin, and therefore sugar cannot enter the cells to be used for energy. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults.

Type 2 diabetes: A disease characterized by high blood sugar levels that occur when the body does not make enough insulin, and cells may not use naturally available insulin correctly. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults.